I’ve recently been working with a number of organisations to help them design some new ITIL®/IT Service Management processes and to improve others, and with one particular organisation I'm helping them create ‘more Agile’ ITSM processes.
I should point out at this stage how important it is to have agreed, up to date and documented processes in place, otherwise everyone has their own version of the process in their heads, and that's not necessarily the same process that’s in your head. Each process should also have an 'owner' who basically 'owns' the process, hence the name 'Process Owner', and is responsible for initially designing it, improving it and making sure people actually follow it...
For some reason creating processes seems to be a real challenge for some people. In reality we all follow processes on a daily basis. Getting ready in the morning, making a cup of tea, getting to work are all processes, and over time we become more efficient and effective at creating and following processes.
I should also point out that creating a process document whether it be for Incident Management or Change Management is not a 'one-off' activity, processes need to be reviewed and improved on a regular basis... at least annually.
If i'm preaching to the converted... and you already know SIPOC, then skip to our 3 key SIPOC tips at the end of our blog
So, How Do We Start?
As I always say... we start by using SIPOC...
But what I have discovered over the years is that there are very few people ‘out there’ that understand this invaluable tool called SIPOC. What is SIPOC? I hear you say... Well let me explain....
What Is SIPOC?
SIPOC (pronounced sigh-pock) literally stand for Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs and Customers. It is simply a visual tool for documenting a process from beginning to end, whether that be a business process or an IT Service Management process. SIPOC diagrams are sometimes also called high level process maps because they do not contain much detail.
The tool can equally be used for the design of new processes or as part of process improvement as you are making the process visible… sometimes for the first time. It’s an excellent tool to use in a facilitated workshop environment.
SIPOC diagrams are also referred to as high level process maps because they do not contain much detail. Can also be called PICOS or CIPOS diagrams, depending on where you start in the discovery stage.
SIPOC was in use at least as early as late 1980’s in total quality management programs (TQM) and is still used today in Six Sigma, LEAN manufacturing and business process management (BPM).
It’s Use In Process Design
SIPOC can be used in initial process design to produce a high level visualisation of an existing undocumented process or even for a new ‘required’ process.
The focus is on capturing the complete set of inputs and outputs rather than just focus on the individual steps in the process, which can lead to some really inefficient processes. E.g. if your process produces an 'output', but you can't find a 'customer' for the 'output'... is the 'output' really required?
It’s Also Used In Process Improvement
Starting with an existing process a visual SIPOC approach allows stakeholders to visualise the process, the inputs and outputs and suppliers and customers.
SIPOC can be used in incremental process improvement using the Six Sigma methodology... in DMAIC which refers to a data-driven quality strategy for improving processes. (DMAIC is an acronym for five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, and Control.)
The SIPOC diagram is often presented at the outset of process improvement efforts such as Kaizen events or during the "define" phase of the DMAIC process. It has three typical uses depending on the audience:
- To help people in visualising and defining a new process
- To give people who are unfamiliar with a particular process a high-level overview
- To reacquaint people who have become out-of-date due to process changes
Using SIPOC is a really useful tool in making processes more agile and leaner...
Firstly start with a big white board or sheet of paper, create five columns and label each (suppliers, inputs, process, outputs and customers)
What Is A Supplier?
A supplier is anyone internal or external to the organisation that supplies input to a process.
What Is An Input?
An Input may be any resource, material, service or information supplied by a supplier.
What Is A Process?
A process consists of a set of activities which if followed will lead to input being converted to an output.
What Is An Output?
An output is something that is delivered to the customer as a result of following a process.
What Is A Customer?
Customers may be internal or external to the organisation who receive the output, product or service.
How Do You Populate This SIPOC Table?
Basically you can start wherever you want, but I often find it easier by documenting the outputs first, then the customers and then working upstream to the inputs and supplier. It’s what I call my ‘bottom-up’ approach.
SIPOC diagrams are also very useful for focusing a discussion and helping team members agree upon a common language and understanding of a process for continuous improvement. In Six Sigma, SIPOC is often used during the “define” phase of the DMAIC improvement steps.
During a brainstorming workshop session, team members often want to start fill in SIPOC diagram by starting with the centre column, process. The process column is kept simple; ideally it lists no more than five to ten steps and each step consists of an action and a subject (verb/noun).
Once the team agrees upon how the process has been documented, they move on to list the outcomes and customers of the process. Then they work backwards from the centre of the diagram to identify the input and suppliers.
Below is an example of how a continuous improvement team might use a SIPOC diagram for a simple ITSM process, such Change Management. The diagram can be created rather quickly by drawing a chart with five columns. Each column is labelled, from left to right, with the letters SIPOC or the words suppliers, inputs, processes, outputs and customers and then populating it and highlighting areas for improvement.
Example of a SIPOC: Change Management – (example only)
SIPOC diagram (suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, customers)
Our 3 Tips For A Successful SIPOC
- Creating a SIPOC is a team effort... Don't try to do this alone, as the likelihood is that you'll miss key information. Believe me I've tried it...
- KISS – Keep it simple. Don't over complicate the activity. Remember it’s meant to be a high-level information gathering activity. You can expand the detail later.
- You don’t need a tool. A whiteboard or several sheets of flip-chart taped together will suffice.
So you now what to do and how to do it all you need is the 'Best Practice' process knowledge from our ITIL® training courses to give you that added advantage.