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What Is UX Card Sorting?

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What Is Card Sorting in UX?

The history of card sorting can be traced back to the field of cognitive psychology and information processing, where researchers began studying how the human mind organises and processes information. Psychologists in the mid-20th century first introduced the concept of card sorting as a method to understand human cognitive processes and problem-solving.

The application of card sorting in the context of information architecture and user experience design emerged in the late 20th century, as the internet and digital technologies began to shape how information was organised and accessed online. With the rise of web design and usability studies, researchers and designers sought methods to understand how users navigated and categorised information on websites.

What Is UX Card Sorting

Card sorting is a technique used in information architecture and user experience (UX) design to organise and categorise information or concepts in a user-friendly way. It is often employed during the early stages of designing websites, applications, or other information systems to understand how users perceive and group different content or elements.

What Is The Purpose Of UX Card Sorting?

What Is The Purpose Of UX Card Sorting? text on the left next to a target with a pin in the centre on a caulk board

UX card sorting aims to gain insights into how users naturally perceive and categorise information, helping designers create intuitive and user-friendly information architectures and navigation structures. It is a valuable user research method that aids in improving the user experience of websites, applications, and other information systems. The main goals of UX card sorting include:

Understanding user mental models

Card sorting allows designers to uncover how users mentally organise and group information. By observing how participants categorise content, designers can gain valuable insights into the users' thought processes and mental models, which helps in designing interfaces that align with users' expectations.

Informing information architecture

Information architecture refers to the organisation and structure of content within a digital product. Card sorting helps designers identify common patterns in how users group information, enabling them to create logical and meaningful navigation hierarchies. By understanding how users expect information to be grouped, designers can make more informed decisions about structuring the content.

Validating existing information architecture

If a website or application already has an established information architecture, card sorting can be used to validate its effectiveness. By having users sort content into pre-defined categories, designers can assess whether the current structure aligns with users' mental models or if adjustments are needed to improve the overall user experience.

Enhancing findability and usability

Card sorting aids in improving the findability of information within a product. By organising content based on users' mental models, designers can ensure that users can quickly and easily find what they are looking for, reducing frustration and enhancing usability.

Guiding content prioritisation

Card sorting sessions can also reveal which pieces of content or features are closely related to each other in users' minds. This information can be valuable for prioritising content or features within a product, ensuring that the most important and relevant items are prominently placed in the user interface.

Facilitating collaboration and consensus

Card sorting is often conducted with groups of participants, which can include stakeholders, designers, and developers. By involving multiple perspectives, card sorting sessions can facilitate discussions and lead to a consensus on the best way to organise information, enhancing the collaboration among team members.

The Card Sorting Process

The card sorting process text in front of people moving post-it notes around on glass

The card sorting process typically involves the following steps:


The first step is to gather the content or concepts that need to be organised. This could include individual pieces of information, website pages, features of an application, or any other relevant items.

Creating cards

Each piece of content or concept is written on a separate card. These cards can be physical, virtual cards in a card-sorting tool, or digital representations.

Conducting the card sorting session

The card sorting session involves involving a group of users or stakeholders. They are asked to sort the cards into groups or categories that make sense to them based on their understanding of the content. Participants can also give labels to these groups to describe the categories.

Data collection

During the card sorting session, the facilitator or researchers note how participants organise the cards and the labels they give each group. This data helps identify patterns and commonalities among users' mental models.


The collected data is then analysed to identify trends, patterns, and similarities among participants' categorisation choices. This analysis provides insights into how users naturally group information and helps designers make informed decisions about the structure and navigation of the information system.

Card sorting can be done in two main ways:

Open card sorting

In this method, participants can create their own categories and labels without any pre-defined structure. This allows for a more user-centric approach, as it reveals how users naturally group the information.

Closed card sorting

In contrast, closed card sorting involves providing participants with pre-defined categories or labels that they must use to sort the cards. This method is useful when designers want to validate or test a specific information architecture or organisational structure.

How To Conduct UX Card Sorting

How to conduct UX card sorting text in front of a hierarchy chart with wooden blocks on a yellow background

Conducting UX card sorting involves a systematic approach to gather user insights and organise information effectively. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to conduct UX card sorting:

Define the objectives

Clearly outline the goals and objectives of the card sorting study. Identify what specific information or content you want to organise, what research questions you aim to answer, and how the results will be used to improve the user experience.

Choose the card sorting method

Decide whether you'll conduct open card sorting or closed card sorting, depending on your research goals and the stage of your design process. Open card sorting allows participants to create their own categories, while closed card sorting uses pre-defined categories.

Prepare the cards

Create physical or digital cards with individual pieces of information or content that need to be sorted. Each card should represent a single item, such as a webpage, feature, or topic. Make sure the content is clear and understandable to participants.

Recruit participants

Determine the target audience for your product or website and recruit participants who match that demographic. Aim for a diverse group to gather a variety of perspectives. The ideal number of participants is typically between 15 to 30 to get enough data for analysis.

Set up the session

Decide whether the card sorting session will be conducted in person or remotely. If it's in person, find a suitable location with enough space and comfortable seating for participants. If it's remote, choose a reliable card sorting tool that allows participants to perform the sorting online.

Provide instructions

Briefly explain the purpose and goals of the card sorting study to the participants. If you're conducting open card sorting, explain that they need to group the cards into categories and label them as they see fit. If it's closed card sorting, provide the pre-defined categories and ask participants to sort the cards into them.

Conduct the card sorting

Allow participants to sort the cards individually. Observe the process, but try not to influence their decisions. If it's an in-person session, you can ask participants to verbalise their thought process while sorting the cards.

Collect data

Record the results of each participant's card sorting. You can take notes or use digital tools to capture the data. For open card sorting, document the categories created by participants and the labels they assign. For closed card sorting, note which cards are sorted into each pre-defined category.

Analyse the data

Once the card sorting sessions are complete, analyse the collected data to identify patterns and commonalities among participants. Look for similarities in how users organise the content and determine the most intuitive ways to structure the information.

Make informed decisions

Use the insights gained from the card sorting study to inform your information architecture and navigation design. Make adjustments or improvements based on the patterns and user preferences identified during the card sorting process.

Iterate and refine

If necessary, conduct additional card sorting sessions to validate or refine your findings. Iterative testing can help you continuously improve the user experience and ensure that the information architecture meets user expectations.

Remember that UX card sorting is a valuable tool, but it should be used in combination with other user research methods to build a comprehensive understanding of your users' needs and behaviours.

What Are The Benefits Of Card Sorting?

What are the benefits of card sorting? text in front of hundreds of yellow post-it notes on a wall

UX card sorting offers several benefits that contribute to the overall improvement of user experience and the design of information architectures. Here are some of the key benefits:

User-Centred Design

Card sorting involves users directly in the process of organising information. By understanding how users naturally categorise content, designers can create information architectures that align with users' mental models and preferences, resulting in a more user-centred design.

Improved Information Architecture

Card sorting provides valuable insights into the most intuitive and meaningful ways to structure content. This leads to improved information architecture, making it easier for users to find what they are looking for and enhancing the product's overall usability.

Enhanced Navigation

By identifying common patterns in how users group and categorise information, designers can create navigation systems that match users' mental models. This leads to more intuitive and efficient navigation, reducing users' time and effort to locate content.

Reduced Cognitive Load

When information is organised to align with users' mental models, it reduces cognitive load. Users can quickly understand the organisation of the content and focus on their tasks without getting overwhelmed by complex or confusing navigation structures.

Content Prioritisation

Card sorting can help determine which content or features users consider most important. This information allows designers to prioritise content appropriately, ensuring that the most relevant and valuable information is easily accessible.

Validation of Design Choices

If designers already have a proposed information architecture, card sorting can validate whether it aligns with users' expectations. If discrepancies are found, adjustments can be made before implementation, saving time and resources.

Facilitation of Collaboration

Card sorting sessions often involve multiple participants, including stakeholders and team members. The collaborative nature of the process encourages discussion and consensus-building, leading to better design decisions.

Early User Feedback

Card sorting can be conducted at the early design stages, even before a prototype is developed. This allows designers to gather user feedback and make informed decisions during the conceptualisation phase, saving time and effort in the later stages of development.

Cost-Effective Methodology

Card sorting is a relatively simple and cost-effective user research technique. It requires minimal resources and can provide valuable data that significantly impacts the design process.

Flexibility and Adaptability

Card sorting can be applied to various projects and digital products, making it a versatile research tool. It can be used for websites, applications, software interfaces, and more.

Where Can You Learn More About UX?

Our BCS Foundation Certificate In User Experience training course is perfect for anyone who wants to increase their knowledge of User Experience. The BCS User Experience course will teach you the UX methodology, best practices, techniques, and a strategy for creating a successful user experience. The course will cover the following topics:

  • Guiding Principles
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  • Illustrating The Context Of Use
  • Measuring Usability
  • Information Architecture
  • Interaction Design
  • Visual Design
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  • Usability Evaluation

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Final Notes On UX Card Sorting

The importance of UX card sorting lies in its ability to create user-centred information architectures and navigation structures. By understanding how users naturally group information, designers can create interfaces that align with users' expectations, reducing cognitive load and improving findability. Card sorting facilitates collaboration among stakeholders and team members, leading to informed design decisions. It is cost-effective and adaptable to various projects, making it a valuable tool for enhancing the overall user experience of digital products.

In summary, UX card sorting is a powerful user research method that informs the design of intuitive and user-friendly interfaces by understanding users' mental models and preferences. Its benefits include improved information architecture, enhanced navigation, reduced cognitive load, and early user feedback, making it an essential practice in user experience design.

About The Author

James Lawless

James Lawless

I’ve always been interested in media, I’m qualified at level 3 film production. I very much enjoy marketing, creating content, analysing, and watching the effect marketing campaigns have. Here at Purple Griffon I create blogs, newsletters, create graphics and much more. I’ve been interested in IT and technology from a young age, probably the same time I became interested in online gaming. I’m also a keen skier and enjoy going on family skiing holidays.

Tel: +44 (0)1539 736 828

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